Q. What is metering or rate modulation technique used by TCP to avoid congestion in a network?

Answer =

The metering technique is implemented to control network congestion, in the following way:

• It ensures that the sender does not overflow the network and it is done by controlling the flow of data packets (rate modulation of data packets). With this measure, the sender maintains a value indicating the limit of data that can be sent into the network without being acknowledged.

• It ensures that the routers along the path work as per their capacity to handle network traffic and do not become overflowed. It includes strategies like :

(a) Rerouting the data packets.
(b) Informing the senders about the congestion to control the transmission rate.
(c) Delaying the transmission/re-transmission depending upon the congestion levels.

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